For the alchemist, Saturn symbolizes the beginning of alchemical transformation, the necessary period of darkness before the light is released. A fierce protector, this Dark King is the Lead that guards the Gold until one is ready to transform oneself.
Early mages, recognizing the darker aspects of the Father of the Gods, called upon Saturn in ritual as illustrated below in an excerpt from my personal copy of "The Greater Key of Solomon" (1914 edition) Although transformative, Saturn's fierce and regal nature is not one to be taken lightly.
"Figure II. The First Pentacle of Saturn.- This Pentacle is of great value and utility for striking terror into the Spirits. Wherefore, upon its being shown to them they submit, and kneeling upon the earth before it, they obey.
Editor's note: The Hebrew Letters within the square are the four great Names of God which are written with four letters: - IHVH, Yod, He, Vau, He; ADNI, Adonai; IIAI, Yiai (this Name as the same Numerical value in Hebrew as the Name EL); and AHIH, Eheieh. The Hebrew versicle which surrounds it is from Psalm lxxii. 9; "The Ethiopians shall kneel before Him, His enemies shall lick the dust."
Figure 12.-The Second Pentacle of Saturn.- This Pentacle is of great value against adversaries; and of especial use in repressing the pride of the Spirits.
Editor's Note.- This is the celebrated, SATOR, AREPO, TENET, OPERA, ROTAS
the most perfect existing form of double acrostic, as far as the arrangement of letters is concerned; it is repeatedly mentioned in the records of mediaeval Magic; and, save to very few, its derivation from the present Pentacle has been unknown. It will be seen at a glance that it is a square of five, giving twenty-five letters, which, added to the unity, gives twenty-six, the numerical value of IHVH. The Hebrew versicle surrounding it is taken from Psalm lxxii. 8, "His dominion shall be also from the one sea to the other, and from the flood unto the world's end." This passage consists also of exactly twenty-five letters, and its total numerical value (considering the final letters with increased numbers). added to that of theName Elohim, is exactly equal to the total numerical value of the twenty-five letters in the Square.
Figure 13.- The Third Pentacle of Saturn.- This should be made within theMagical Circle, and it is good for use at night when thou invokest the Spirits of the nature of Saturn. Editor's Note: The characters at the ends of the rays of the Mystic Wheel are Magical Characters of Saturn. Surrounding it are the Names of the Angels:- Omeliel, Anachiel, Arauchiah, and Anazachia, written in Hebrew.
Figure 14.- The Fourth Pentacle of Saturn. - This Pentacle serveth principally for executing all the experiments and operations of ruin, destructioin and death. And when it is made in full perfection, it serveth also for those Spirits which bring news, when thou invokest them from the side of the South.
Editor's Note:- The Hebrew words around the sides of the trianble are fromDeut.vi. 4:- "Hear, O Israel, IHVH ALHINVH is IHVH ACHD." The surrounding versicle is from Psalm cix. 18:- "As he clothed himself with cursing like with a garment, so let it come into his bowels like water, and like oil into his bones." In the center of the Pentacle is the mystic letter Yod.
Figure 15.- The Fifth Pentacle of Saturn.- This Pentacle defendeth those who invoke the Spirits of Saturn during the night; and chaseth away the Spirits which guard treasures.
Editor's Note:- The Hebrew letter sin the angles of the Cross are those of the Name IHVH. Those in the Angles of the Square form ALVH, Eloah. Round the four sides of the Square are the Names of the Angels:- Arehanah, Rakhaniel, Roelhaiphar, and Noaphiel. The versicle is:- "A Great God, A Mighty, and a Terrible." - Deut. x. 17.
Figure 16.- The Xixth Pentacle of Saturn.- Around this Pentacle is each Name symbolist as it should be. The person against whom thouh shalt pronounce it shall be obsessed by Demons.
Editor's Note:- It is formed from Mystical Characters of Saturn. Around it is written in Hebrew: "Set thou a wicked one to be ruler over him, and let Satan stand at his right hand."
Figure 17.- The Seventh and Last Pentacle of Saturn.- This Pentacle is fit for exciting earthquakes, seeing that the power of each order of Angels herein invoked is sufficient to make the whole Universe tremble.
Editor's Note:- Within the Pentacle are the Names of the Nine Orders of Angels, those of six of them in ordinary Hebrew Characters, and the remainder in the letters which are known as "The Passing of the River." These Nine Orders are:- 1, CHAIOTH HA-QUADESCH, Holy Living Creatures; 2, AUPHANIM, Wheels; 3, ARALIM, Thrones; 4, CHASCHMALIM, Brilliant Ones; 5, SERAPHIM, Fiery Ones; 6, MELAKIM, Kings; 7,ELOHIM, Gods; 8, BENI ELOHIM, Sons of the Elohim; 9, KERUBIM, Kerubim. The versicle is from Psalm xviii, 7:- "Then the earth shook and trembled, the foundations of the hills also moved and were shaken, because He was wroth."